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The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

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R. L. Carhart-Harris, K. J. Friston
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq010 1265-1283 First published online: 1 March 2010

Summary

This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states.

  • freud
  • the ego
  • default-mode
  • prediction
  • free-energy
  • Abbreviations:
    Abbreviations
    BOLD
    blood oxygen level dependent
    DMN
    default-mode network
    fMRI
    functional magnetic resonance imaging
    REM
    rapid eye movement

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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